4477 Philosophy of Religion
ao.Univ.Prof. Dr. Gabriele Mras
Contact details
Weekly hours
Language of instruction
02/01/19 to 02/20/19
Registration via LPIS
Notes to the course
Day Date Time Room
Tuesday 05/21/19 01:00 PM - 05:30 PM D4.0.034
Tuesday 05/28/19 12:00 PM - 04:30 PM D4.0.034
Tuesday 06/04/19 12:00 PM - 04:30 PM D4.0.034
Tuesday 06/18/19 12:00 PM - 04:30 PM D4.0.034
Tuesday 06/25/19 12:00 PM - 04:30 PM D4.0.034

Some perennial problems concerning the possibility of justifying scientific claims will be presented; the concept of "causality" will be explicated, analysed and discussed; the consequences approaches in the philosophy of science have been drawn from these discussions will be pursued.

So we will begin with David Hume's treatment of causality in his "Sceptical doubts concerning the operations of the human understanding". Next, we will move on to John Stuart Mill’s conception of causality (i.e. his distinction between "necessary and sufficient conditions") in his "Logic". The final part of this course will be devoted to the more modern ideas concerning causality.

Learning outcomes

One of the learning outcomes is to make students familiar with the philosophical enquiries concerning the foundations of arithmetic, resp. the logicism that was defended by Frege and Boole. ; the overall aim and structure of their philosophical projects, and the key arguments of their major works. the more general learning outcomes are: to develop general philosophical skills: analyzing philosophical texts and defending positions in discussion and writing argumentative essays.

Attendance requirements

Attendance Requirement: 100%

Teaching/learning method(s)

The course is designed as a seminar, not as a lecture. The major part of the classes will be devoted to discussion.


Throughout the term we will have discussions on class readings. Part of the grade for this course depends on active participation in these discussions. In addition it is required to write a paper and to give a 30 minutes presentation.

  • paper 30 %
  • presentation 40 %
  • final exam 30 % 
Availability of lecturer(s)

ao. Univ. Prof. Dr. phil. Gabriele Mras
Office hours: Donnerstag 14:00–15:00
Building D4, 3rd floor, room number D4.3.020
Telefon: 01 31336 4257


Unit details
Unit Date Contents



Moran, Dermot: Medieval Philosophy from Augustine to Nicholas of Cusa; in: Shand, John (ed.) Fundamentals of Philosophy, Routledge, London – New York 2003, p. 155-203.

Saint Augustine; in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy first published Fri Mar 24, 200; substantive revision Fri Dec 7, 2018,



Augustine’s City of God, Book 13; in:



Frede, Dorothea; Reis, Burkhard (eds.): Introduction; in: Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin – New York, p. 1-17.

Kenney, John Peter: “None Come Closer to Us than These:” Augustine and the Platonists; in: Religions 2016, 7, 114.

Speaks, Jeff: Platonic arguments for the immortality of the soul; in:

Swinburne, Richard: Soul, nature and immortality of the; in: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy,



Massey, Gerald J.: Rene Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy; in:

Rozemond, Marleen: Descartes and the Immorality of the Soul; in: Cottingham, John; Hacker, Peter (eds.) Mind, Method and Morality: Essays in Honour of Anthony Kenny, Oxford University Press, 2010, P. 251-272.

Wilson, Catherine: What is the importance of Descartes’s Meditation six?; in: Philosophica 76, 2005, p. 67-90.



Andrade, Gabriel: Immortality; in: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,

Augustine’s Philosophical Anthropology: Immortality of Human Soul in a Composite Soul-Body; in: CAFNepal,’s-philosophical-anthropology-immortality-of-human-soul-in-a-composite-soul-body/.

Baggini, Julian: Hume on religion, part 7: Soul-searching; in: The Guardian,

Brachtendorf, Johannes: The Structure of the Human Mind According to Augustine. Self-reflection and Knowledge of God in De Trinitate, Felix Meiner Verlag, Hamburg, 2000, p. 1-339.

Crabbe, James (ed.): From Soul to Self, Routledge, London – New York, 1999.

Ebrey, David: Plato’s Phaedo; in: Oxford Bibliographies, p. 1-16.

Eksen, Kerem: “Inward Turn” and the Augustinian Self; in: Diametros No 25, September 2010, p. 132-145.

Hafner, Johann Ev.: Gott ist nicht der Himmel. Die Notwendigkeit einer nichtgöttlichen Transzendenz, p. 1-20.

Haldane, John: Anscombe and Geach on Mind and Soul; in:



Immortality; in: Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its Reception 12, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin – Bosten 2015, p. 1-8.

Inwood, Brad (ed.): The Cambridge Companion to the Stoics, Cambridge University Press 2003.

Krantz Gabriel, Susan: Brentano’s Account of Anselm’s Proof of Immortality in Monologion 68-69; in:

Lachmann, Otto F.: Aurelius Augustinus: Bekenntnisse; in: Die Bekenntnisse des heiligen Augustinus, Reclam, Leipzig, 1888, p. 1-183.

O’Connor, William P.: The Concept of the Human Soul according to Saint Augustine, Dissertation, 1921, p.1-85.

Ötsch, Walter: Welt-Bilder | 05 | Bewusstsein + Gewissen in Antike und frühem Christentum II, in:



Pagan Monotheism and Early Christianity; in:

Inhaltsübersicht von Platons Politeia; in:

Perkams, Matthias: Philosophie im Rückblick: Autobiographische Momente bei Augustinus und Abaelard, Institute für Altertumswissenschaften und Philosophie, p. 1-14.

Perkams, Matthias: Augustinus und die Freiheit vom Tode. Platonische Argumente für die Unsterblichkeit der Seele in Soliloquia, De immortalitate animae und De quantitate animae, Projektbeschreibung, in:

Perkams, Matthias: Der Rhetor als Philosoph – Cicero als Zeuge philosophischen Gottesglaubens in den Schriften Peter Abaelards, in:




Saint Augustine (AD. 354-430) Summary, The Confessions, in:

Stayton, Julie: The Immortality of the Soul in Plato’s Phaedo; in:

Seeck, Gustav Adolf: Die Unsterblichkeit der Seele; in: Platons Staat. Ein kritischer Kommentar, C.H.Beck,

Stiller, Joachim: Augustinus: Über die Unsterblichkeit der Seele. Eine Besprechung des Werkes „Über die Unsterblichkeit der Seele“ von Augustinus, p.1-6.




Who Am I? Consciousness, Identity, and the Soul; in:

Zozmann, Michael: De regimine principum 2.0. Zur Anwendung von Methoden der Digitalen Humanities in der Mediävistik am Beispiel einer semantischen Untersuchung von zwei Fürstenspiegeln aus der Zeit um 1300, Universität Bielefeld, Fakultät für Geschichtswissenschaft, Philosophie und Theologie, Dissertation, p. 1-268.

Last edited: 2019-06-24